Sunday, February 25, 2018

Mental Grammar


Lingkasan
Grammar and Psycholinguistics

Chomsky’s competence and performance distinction
Competence is the knowledge that people have of the grammar of their language and, as such, it is goal of linguistics to describe this competence.
Chomsky’s view psycholinguistics has two major goals:
1.      To specify how people use competence so that they are able to produce and understand sentences.
2.      To specify how people acquire competence (grammatical knowledge).
For Chomsky performance processes is the activities involved in producing and understanding sentence.

The theory of performance should explain:
·         Sentence production               : how speakers take ideas and make them into sentences with is rendered into speech sound.
·         Sentences comprehension      : how speaker on receiving speech sound recover ideas from those sound.
The relationship of competence to performance for Chomsky is that competence being a part or component of the whole which is performance.
Relationship of syntax. Meaning and sound
                              Meaning   
Syntax  
                              Sound

The Standard Theory
The standard theory grammar essentially consists of various of rules: syntactic, semantic and phonological.
Four different level of linguistic description:
1.      Sound level (phonetic interpretation), where the phonetic sound pattern of a sentence is represented.
2.      Meaning  level  (semantic interpretation), the meaning and logical relation in a sentence are represented.
3.      Deep structure represents the underlying syntactic form of the sentence.
4.      Surface structure represents its more overt form.
The syntactic component consists of two types of syntactic rules and responsible for an output.
1.      Phrase structure rules (also known as base rules) and it is provides Deep structure.

      S
Phrase structure rules                                                            Lexocon
 



                                                            Deep Structure
Transformation rules
 


                                                            Surface Structure
Semantic Rules
Phonological rules

 




            Phonetic Interpretation                                              Semantic Interpretation

2.      Transformation rules and it has provided Deep structure and provide surface.
3.      Phonological rules and phonetic interpretation which operate on the surface structure to provide the phonetic interpretation of a sentence.
4.      Semantic rules and semantic interpretation, which operate on the same surface, structure to provide the semantic interpretation of a sentence.

The Government/Binding (GB) theory of grammar
GB theory was first synthesized in Chomsky’s Lectures on Government and Binding in 1980 and then developed in more detail in other publications in the 1980s.

Linguistic Challenges to Chomsky’s Grammar
Challenges to Chomsky’s grammar have mainly stemmed from two sources:
1.      Disagreement with the organization of his grammar where syntax is given a primary role over semantic.
2.      Disagreement with the adequacy of his structure characterization of such basic syntactic relations and constituents, particularly subject.

Meaning-based grammar
Chomsky begins neither with the meaning of the sentences nor with its sound pattern. Rather he begins with the specification of syntax which functions independently (‘automously’) with the meaning and sound forms of the sentence being the output of that syntax.
Conclusion
Based on Chomsky someone who can produce and understand about sentence.

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