Wednesday, December 5, 2012

THE LINGUISTIC CAPACITY


The task of linguist is to explain what it is about human being that render them capable of performing this feat, and what it is about human languages that renders them capable of being learned and used by human beings.

THEORY OF GRAMMAR
There are two parts of the task of linguist:
The linguist must be determine what properties various human language process.
The linguist must determine what properties are common to all language.

THE FORM OF GRAMMAR
The considerable agreement that the correct theory of grammar must allow for grammar that have the following component:
1. A lexicon, in which each word of the language is listed along about listening, its determine structure and relationship to other word of language.
2. A phonology, which is description of what the possible sound of the language are, and how to combined to form word.
3. A syntax, which is a description of the various ways in which of the language must be strong together to form sentences.
4. A semantics, which is description of how the meaning of a string of words in the language is made up up of the meaning of the individual words in the string.

THE SYNTACTIC COMPONENT
An example should serve to make more concrete the notion of the syntactic component.
Consider the examples in (1.1)
a. My brother married a native speaker of Classical Latin.
b. Married my brother a native speaker of Classical Latin.
It is highly unlikely that any native speaker of English has ever heard (1.1a), since there are no speakers of Classical Latin alive today. Nevertheless, all speaker of English recognize that
(1.1a) is a sentence of English, while (1.1b) is not.

METHODOLOGICAL REMARKS
The learning of a first language is for the most part an unconscious process. While it is necessary for the native speaker to acquire rules of the language in order to speak it correctly.

BASIC NATIONS AND NOTATION

HOW TO GET STARTED
While our long-rage goal is to provide a description of the native speaker’s linguistic knowledge and to explain how language is acquired by the child, it is necessary to be somewhat selective in our choice of immediate goal.

CATEGORIES AND STRUCTURE
A possible hypothesis about a natural language (as as English) is that any sequence of words whatsoever constitutes a grammatical, or syntactically well-formed, sentence of the language.
Take for example, sentence (2.1) and interchange boy and toy
(2.1) The boy destroyed a toy

(2.2) The toy destroyed a boy
Sentence (2.2) is grammatical, thought it may sound peculiar at first owing to the strangeness of the phenomenon that it describes.
Interchanging the position of  a and the again yields a grammatical sentence:
(2.1) The boy destroyed a toy

(2.3) A boy destroyed the toy
The grammatical of (2.2) and (2.3) suggests a hypothesis: perhaps one can take any sentence of English, interchange the positions of any two words, and end up with a grammatical sentence.
A syntactic category is a group of words in a given language that can replace one another in any sentence of the language whatsoever without affecting grammaticality.

PHRASE STRUCTURE TREES
The function of a grammar is to assign the category S to a sequence of words, that is grammatical sentence of the language. In the particular grammar of English, functioning as required, should assign the category S to the sentence The boy destroy a toy, just as it assign the category NP to the sequence a toy.
The procedure just outlined is called bottom up.

a. ART N       V2        ART N

The boy destroyed a             toy

b. ART  N       V1         NP rule (2.15)

            The  boy destroyed             ART    N

     a             toy
c. ART   N      VP   rule (2.24)

The    boy    V1                              NP

               destroy    ART         N

                           a          boy


d. NP        VP rule (2.15)

     ART    N          V1            NP
    the        boy
   destroy
      ART         N
         a             toy        
e.               S      (rule 2.25)

NP                    VP

ART       N          V1                     NP

the         boy           destroyed        ART     N
       a         toy
TREE TERMS
First of all, every point in a tree where is a branch is called a mode

  nodes  



WHAT A GRAMMAR CAN DO

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